Imune: Coding of Immune Responses
The immune system in our body is present to fight against all invading microorganisms. In biology, immunity is the ability of single cell organisms to withstand specific pathogenic microorganisms. In simple terms, immunity refers to the ability of a host organism to mount a strong defense against an antigen, which is known to cause infection. Thus immunity may be defined as a process by which adaptive immune deficiency causes the suppression of the adaptive immune function and allows an invading microorganism to multiply and invade the body. immunity can also be defined as the second line of defense that provides protection against a specific pathogen that has already been identified for its detrimental effect.
The immune system is composed of two parts – innate immunity. Int innate immunity is produced in the first stages of life when the body is faced with a variety of microorganisms and it is activated by the effect of an antigen that is harmful to the cells. The innate immune system is further developed through differentiation from the innate immune cells that are produced by the mother organism during pregnancy and lactation period. The second system is referred to as adaptive immune deficiency and it is induced by environmental agents such as microorganisms and chemicals. Immune cells can be recognized by their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties. These immune cells are mainly activated to combat a pathogen that has been identified by recent studies as a major cause of infection in humans.
Immune system is mainly affected by four types of cytokines namely interferon gamma, interleukin gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and gamma interferon. Interferon gamma is commonly used in treating acute infections and is a well known biological agent for fighting against infections. It stimulates the production of white blood cells and decreases the activity of bacteria. On the other hand, interleukin gamma facilitates the effect of TNF on the cells, which in turn inhibits the growth of bacteria. These inflammatory mediators are responsible for the activation of inflammatory cells and release of the cytokines; these mediators are also responsible for the activation of complement components such as interferon gamma and interleukin gamma.
Imune dysfunction is often associated with chronic disorders such as asthma, multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease and may also result from other sensitivities such as food allergies, fibromyalgia, alcohol intolerance, osteoporosis and sleep apnea. Recent studies have suggested that people who suffer from chronic systemic infections may respond to the use of biologic drugs for delaying the progression of infectious processes and preventing the complications of these diseases. Biologic drugs such as inborn immunoglobulin G (IgG) and soluble interferon gamma are designed to stimulate the production of the important inflammatory mediator, interferon gamma, in the bodies of patients with severe and prolonged forms of interferon gamma (SIGF). The goal is to control and delay the progression of Sigmund disease, acquired interstitial lung disease or cancer. Ongoing studies are investigating the role of IgG in ulcerative colitis, tuberculosis, HIV, leukemia, lymphomas and other cancers.
Imune is also being investigated for the treatment of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell anemia and others. Ongoing clinical trials are testing novel therapeutic approaches aimed at improving immune function and the elimination of disease-related disabilities and inconveniences. There is also research underway for potential new targeted drug candidates for the following categories; diabetes, cardiovascular, rheumatoid, infectious, neurological and musculoskeletal.
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health, is conducting a clinical trial concerning the use of Imune to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. Preliminary findings suggest that participants who took a daily dose of Imune had a decreased blood sugar level and a decreased risk of hypoglycemia, compared to a placebo. Further studies are planned to evaluate the safety and acceptability of Imune for use in patients with diabetes and other inflammatory mediators. NIDDK is also funding a study investigating the effects of Imune on immune cells, including dendritic cells and white blood cells.