The Management Hierarchy
Management is an important part of every organization. It is often referred to as the management of a company, whether it’s a private firm, a nonprofit organization, or an international government body. In simple terms, it is the science and art of managing human resources. Managers are supposed to know how to recruit, train, motivate, and keep on top those whom they have hired to work for them. The art of management is an ever-changing discipline that demands innovation, strategic thinking, adaptation, and discipline.
The most basic concept of management is to know where you want to go and why you need to get there. In order to reach your goals, managers will have to prioritize and organize their time and resources so as to accomplish those goals. One effective way of organizing your time and resources is through planning, analyzing, and implementing a plan. Below are some of the main functions of managers:
* Plans – A manager plans and executes a project. He should possess a broad range of skills, including the ability to communicate effectively, analyze data, make strategic decisions, and set goals and deadlines. A successful manager should be able to understand the goals for a particular project and come up with a strategy for accomplishing them. A manager should be familiar with all the key staff members who are involved in the project so that he can coordinate their actions in order to achieve the goals.
* Directing – The primary responsibility of a manager is directing the overall activity of his team or department. He may be directly involved in directing the activities of his staff members. In addition, he may indirectly direct the activities of his staff by example by setting the standard of performance. He should define management by identifying its characteristics such as direct and indirect leadership, creating opportunities, and providing control. He should know how to direct effectively by setting standards, evaluating people’s performance, and rewarding or dismissing those who meet acceptable standards. He should be able to effectively control processes by defining policies, defining assignments, and determining who among his staff members will have authority to perform certain duties.
* Controlling – Managers control the resources, goods, services, and events that enter into their organizational structure. In the organizational context, these are the means to an end. Managers define the goals and objectives and organize the resources to attain those goals and objectives. They decide how to arrange these resources to attain the goals and objectives. For instance, they could organize salespeople to go after new customers to expand their market share, establish new marketing strategies, and increase their productivity.
An important point is that all managers do not have the same skill set. This makes it difficult to create an organizational structure that is both effective and profitable. Some managers are excellent at planning, organizing, delegating, and controlling while others are not as good in these areas. These differences among management also result in management hierarchy where some managers are at the top of a pyramid and others at the bottom. This creates a situation wherein lower-level management are left with no clear objectives and are therefore ineffective.