Management is the management of an entire organization, whether it’s a corporation, a nonprofit organization, or an governmental entity. The term “management” actually encompasses a wide range of activities. For instance, there are budget and financial management, scheduling management, planning management, safety management, risk management, and human resources management. It also covers strategic planning, training management, talent management, and internal controls.
One of the primary objectives of management is getting things done. This objective can be accomplished in many ways. However, the most common way is through setting objectives and designing processes and structures to achieve these objectives. Managers set the objectives and design the process and structure required to get things done. They usually have to take into consideration the talents and skill sets of the staff in order to achieve the objectives.
However, there are times when the manager does not have enough staff to meet the organizational goals. This can result in the manager facing tough decisions. In these cases, he may resort to using supervision, delegation, and the use of certain organizational tools such as time limits, feedback mechanisms, penalties, rewards, and other cues to ensure that people cooperate and work together to achieve the objectives. Sometimes managers also have to consider external influences on the performance of the team members aside from their own abilities.
One management theory is known as the contingency theory. The contingency theory states that the management has a limited number of tools at its disposal in cases when drastic changes are required. These include direct management, indirect management, and preventive management. Direct management includes the use of punishments and rewards and the organization has the power to remove people who are found to be performing below expectations.
On the other hand, indirect management refers to the involvement of the manager in activities that do not directly affect the production or the output of the firm. Preventive management involves the development of policies and systems that help improve the productivity of the company. It also involves the identification of problems and the prevention of them from occurring. There is also a third type of management style that is sometimes referred to as the total management style. This type of management is used when the objectives of the organization are complex and when the procedures involved in the day-to-day operations are too numerous and complicated for a manager to effectively handle.
There is also a fourth managerial style called directing. In the case of the directing manager, the manager assumes the role of a direct supervisor. He or she reports directly to the president, the shareholders, and other direct managers. The main goal of directing is to achieve the overall goals of the firm without having to depend on his or her subordinates to do so. Directing also requires a great deal of skill and is often very difficult for some managers.